Orgasm, also called climax, is the sudden discharge of sexual tension accumulated during the sexual response cycle. It’s controlled by the involuntary / autonomic nervous system, and commonly results in rhythmic movements at the level of the pelvis as well as vocalizations, a feeling of euphoria throughout the body and involuntary muscle movements.
In the case of men, the stimulation of the penis is what leads to orgasm, while in women the vaginal orgasms and the clitoris are differentiated, depending on the area stimulated, although there are researchers who argue that all female orgasms are clitoral, because the vagina has very few nerve receptors, and rather they are nerve extensions of the same clitoris, which has more than 8,000 terminations and is the homologous male penis, only that it is inside the body. In certain positions, vaginal penetration may also be accompanied by clitoral stimulation. Between 70% and 80% of women mention requiring direct clitoral stimulation to reach orgasm, which is why many never experience it, if their partner doesn’t stimulate this part.
Men especially tend to have a refractory period, this appears after the orgasm that is commonly accompanied by ejaculation (except in cases of anorgasmia), unless you have delayed ejaculation or multiple orgasms. This period is due to the release of oxytocin, which provides deep relaxation. On the other hand prolactin inhibits sexual arousal, which can cause a sudden lack of interest after ejaculation. Before reaching puberty there is no ejaculation or refractory period, which may resemble the female experience of orgasm that can be multiple. The orgasm for the man lasts between 3 and 7 seconds, in which there is an intense pleasure, with contractions in the anal sphincter, the prostate gland and the muscles of the penis. This time can be prolonged and the sensation increased if ejaculation is retained during several
Women are multi-orgasmic by nature. After the initial orgasm, the subsequent orgasms may be stronger or more pleasurable due to the accumulated stimulation, although some mention that they also have a refractory period in which the stimulation does not generate pleasure and may even cause pain in the case of stimulation of the clitoris. The female orgasm lasts about 20 seconds, with contractions in the vagina, uterus, pelvic muscles and anus. One way to know if the orgasm was real is to observe the pupils that dilate at that moment as a result of the drastic activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
The neuroscientist Gert Holstege located in 2013 a place of the brain stem whose left part controls both ejaculation and orgasm, while the right part is responsible for the functions that allow urination. At the hormonal level, the dopaminergic system is found as a trigger and serotonergic as an inhibitor of the orgasm response. It was found through tests with imaging that the area of the brain that is stimulated is the same for men and women, although in the case of women there are greater areas that go off during orgasm, such as the cortex, related to pain, which could relate this with pleasure depending on the context, since both sensations travel through the same nervous channels. In both cases the release of dopamine and oxytocin are remarkable and are responsible for the sensations of pleasure. The orbitofrontal cortex, in charge of control, reason and self-evaluation, goes out, providing a deep relaxation eliminating anxiety and fear. This coupled with endorphins that have a relaxing effect and cause sleep after reaching orgasm.
There are records that say it is possible to reach orgasm without physical stimulation, through psychological stimulation as happens for example during erotic dreams. This and other mysteries continue to be unveiled with the scientific study of orgasm.